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- Category: Uncategorised
- Published on Friday, 22 July 2016 07:43
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Comparative Approaches to Event Management
Comparative Approaches to Event Management
Disasters are made-made and technological hazards that pose a danger to the environment, economy and political aspects of the country[ CITATION Ale93 \l 1033 ]. Disaster occurrence is an emerging issue in the world today and; therefore, many states have set up disaster preparedness and mitigation strategies to help in handling the damage caused by these occurrences[ CITATION Sha07 \l 1033 ]. Natural hazards can be defined as the extreme and severe weather and climate events that occur naturally and pose a threat to human beings and communities[ CITATION Ale93 \l 1033 ]. They are termed as natural disasters when the effect causes a destruction of peoples' lives and livelihood. The losses resulting from such occurrences are a major obstacle to economic development, and thus, the people should be educated on how to prepare for such hazards before they become disasters[ CITATION Bla14 \l 1033 ]. On the other hand, technological hazards refer to dangers originating from technical or industrial conditions. They include dangerous procedures, accidents, infrastructure failure and specific man-made activities. They cause injury, illness, health problems, property damage, social and economic disruption and even death[ CITATION Wei02 \l 1033 ]. Usually, there is no warning preceding these disasters. It is evident that the number of accidental disasters is increasing due to the high number of new substances and opportunities for human error when using these materials. One has to learn how to plan and prepare for and respond to the incidents. For instance, learn how to use, store and dispose of chemicals to reduce the potential injury to the people and the environment[ CITATION Sha07 \l 1033 ].
Birmingham city in Alabama State is among the countries that are affected by these hazards. First, Birmingham is affected by floods. They are experienced year-round due to its closeness to the Gulf of Mexico. When storms and winds move to the area and combine with moisture, it results in rain that can produce flooding. The rapidly rising water can destroy bridges, trees; create new waterways and catastrophic mudslides[ CITATION Wei02 \l 1033 ]. Urban centers increase water runoff two to six times above what could happen in natural terrain. This occurrence causes the parking lots and the streets to fill with swift running water. Flooding can also occur when the water level in the rivers, lakes and streams increases. The damage caused by floods is the destruction of property, loss of lives, and economic losses since during flooding transportation of goods and people are made impossible. The government may spend a lot of resources in improving the drainage systems that may be expensive to the economy[ CITATION Wei02 \l 1033 ].
Moreover, drought as a natural hazard refers to an extended period when an area has a persistent and abnormal shortage in its water supply. In Birmingham, Alabama this occurs because moisture and rain-producing weather systems are blocked from entering the area[ CITATION Bla14 \l 1033 ]. It may occur anytime and persist for months or even years. Its onset and end are often difficult to estimate thus making it difficult to monitor its progress and quantify its impact. The damage caused is the shortage and lack of water for domestic and industrial use, agricultural activities are shut down, and crops may dry, and livestock die. There is reduced electricity production, recreational activities impacted because reservoirs cannot support boat and ship traffic (Blaikie, 2014).
Tornadoes are violent rotating winds that descend from thunderstorms and make contact with the cloud. In Birmingham, tornadoes are rain-wrapped and hidden by terrain thus making them more dangerous [ CITATION Wei02 \l 1033 ]. They can occur any time of the year on any day. Most of them develop during two peak severe weather seasons: the spring months of March, April and May and the fall months of November and December. The people are encouraged to prepare whenever there is an impending danger of a tornado. According to a recent study was done on the frequency of tornadoes, it has been reported that the numbers have doubled in the last two decades[ CITATION Wei02 \l 1033 ]. Alabama has been ranked fifth in the number of killer tornadoes. The dangers caused include the destruction of property and death of people.
Besides man-made features are hazardous and pose a greater danger to the world. For instance, pollution to the environment has been a significant risk in Birmingham. Chemicals and wastes are released and found everywhere every day. Improper release of these chemicals causes harmful effects to the humans and the environment[ CITATION Wei02 \l 1033 ]. Hazards can occur during production, storage, transportation and disposal. They cause death, injury, serious health problems, damage to buildings, and property. Another peril can be cyber-attacks, defined as the attack on the country's information and information systems. They occur most frequently due to the advancement in technology. The dangers of cyber-attacks include intruders breaking into systems and changing files, stealing valuable information, threatening the economy and security of the state[ CITATION Sha07 \l 1033 ]. Moreover, use of explosive such as nuclear and atomic bombs is also another man-made hazard. Terrorists have frequently used these devices as weapons of attack. Its use has caused massive deaths, severe injuries, and destruction of property[ CITATION Sha07 \l 1033 ].
Birmingham emergency management systems have had the plan to deal with the hazards experienced in Alabama. The mitigation plan includes efforts to eliminate and reduce the risks of hazards to protect lives, environment, and property and limit economic disruption. The prevention measure includes construction of floodways, and non-structural mitigation such as developing codes to protect special attacks[ CITATION Moo07 \l 1033 ]. Concerning preparation, the jurisdiction is set and ready to respond to a disaster and manage its impacts. They have developed emergency response plans, training, and exercise programs to assist people to know how to deal with disasters[ CITATION Moo07 \l 1033 ]. The response functions include acting during or immediately before or after the catastrophe. The efforts include making an emergency communication to the relevant authorities and assisting the victims of the disaster.[ CITATION Moo07 \l 1033 ]. Recovery involves efforts to repair and restore conditions to the acceptable normal for example, carrying out reconstruction and trauma counseling[ CITATION Moo07 \l 1033 ]. The challenges experienced by the jurisdiction are the inability to predict disasters such as tornadoes and cyber threats. There is also a problem in the availability of resources to mitigate these disasters since they are very expensive.
Disasters are bound to happen and; therefore, the country should be prepared to prevent or recover its occurrences. The people should be educated and trained on how to protect themselves especially at home from earthquakes, floods and even chemical hazards. The emergency management systems should focus on its primary purpose to protect lives, the environment, property and the economy[ CITATION Moo07 \l 1033 ].
- Category: Uncategorised
- Published on Friday, 08 April 2016 13:38
- Written by Super User
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One of the greatest menaces recorded in the United States of America is serial killings. The term was coined in the 1970s by the Los Angeles Police Detective Pierce Brooks (Keheller & Keheller, 1998). However, the first usage of the term was in the year 1981 following the descriptions of the Atlanta killings by Wayne Williams. The rise of serial killers from 1980 has raised concerns within the public and law officials of whom, some have written books on serial killers based on their experiences with the offenders. Most of the books seek to establish the historical transformation relative to psychopathic tendencies and serial killer antics. According to the police records, America has witnessed both male and female serial killers, especially in the 20th century. Ted Bundy, Aileen Wuornos, John Wayne Gacy, Ottis Toole are some of notorious serial killers recorded within the 20th Century. The studies conducted on the previous cases has enabled police to understand how to implement mechanisms to apprehend the criminals before they cause harm to the society. According to the research undertaken by different personalities on serial killers, there is a difference between the male and female serial killers. The differences recorded between the male and the female serial killers are majorly based on the characteristics and motives of the criminals. This essay seeks to understand the differences between the male and the female serial killers based on the implications of their activities in the society.
The reports on the modus operandi of most female serial killer issued by psychological reports indicate that there are more differences than similarities relative to the male and female serial killers (Wilson & Hilton, 1998). The reports issues stipulated the ground differences by which the male and female serial killers operate. According to Kathleen Heidi’s report, the major differences constitute drug abuse history, psychiatric problems, the weapons used, and stalking behaviors (Keeney & Heidi, 1994). Similar reports stipulate that there are some similarities of the killers relative to their childhood backgrounds, educational implications, and some psychological factors. From this point, I will engage a deeper analysis on the variables named above to generate a congruent argument on the differences of male and female serial killers and subsequently establish their implications to the society.
Wayne Wilson and Tonya Hilton through their article Modus Operandi on Female serial killerson website argue that the female serial killers have premeditated antics in the way they operate. The title ‘place-specific killers’ is mostly used to refer to women serial killers as they tend to operate within settings such as home or health care institutions (Wilson & Hilton, 1998). The modus operandi concerns methods by which the killer dispatches the killings. The females choose people within a specific setting and monitor them before executing the murder. On the other hand, the reports on the male killers indicate that they tend to align more to reason than setting factor. Male serial killers that undertake killings for sexual reasons will undertake killings in any settings they identify their victims. This establishment is true and is depicted in 2003 film, Silence of the Lambs movie about Hannibal Lector who is obsessed with chubby females and abducts starves and later kills.
The male serial killers have peculiar elements that constitute specific murderous antics. One of the major differences between the male and the female serial killers is their levels of sociopathic traits. A national symposium undertaken by the FBI concluded that serial killers do not have generic profiles (Keeney & Heidi, 1994). However, some vital analysis established that the male and the female serial killers vary on their motivations. Female serial killers exhibit childhood problems such as defilement by a specific person. Subsequently, she operates by killing people who have similar traits to the person. Aileen Wuornos had a troubled childhood as her father killed himself following accusations of child molestation (Wilson & Hilton, 1998). After she had moved in with her grandparents, the grandfather raped her. Growing older, she became a sex worker who constituted her victims. Her killing traits were reflective to her childhood. Such background stories differ in the male cases.
Unlike the females’ motivation and choice of victims, the males undergo different set of social problems that leads to their murderous antics (Vronsky, 2007). They mostly undergo social problems such as inability to intermingle or hostility from with their peers, which contribute to pervasion and other sexual immoralities. With the intention of fulfilling what they deem lacking in their youth lives, the male serial killers focus their killings on the individuals. Most profiles on the male serial killers indicate that they rape their victims before killing them. The profiles of killers like John Wayne Gacy, Edmund Kemper, Daniel Combargo Barbosa and Pedro Rodriguez Filho established that they murdered their victims after killing them. John Wayne Gacy killed young boys after sodomizing them, his background investigation revealed that he was social awkward and growing up was unable to relate to his peers.
Historical studies reveal that the murderous antics were majorly focused on the males and that the focus on women killers started in the 1960s (Vronsky, 2007). The studies revealed that upon investigations patters emerged on the female killings. An outstanding factor that was not evident before was that most of the female serial killers were from lower socioeconomic classes. Other factor established was that they had minimal education background and low employment skills. Such establishment was contrary to the depiction of the male serial killers whose modus operandi revealed that they are highly skilled and equally intellectual individuals. In comparison, the male serial killers have higher Intelligence Quotient compared to the female serial killers.
Although the studies revealed that the men were highly intelligent and their level of damage was higher, other factors were similarly evident from the establishment. The study showed that it was more difficult to detect patterns within the female serial killers, as most of them were committed within longer duration compared to that of men (Vronsky, 2007). Additionally, the studies revealed that the murders committed with the female serial killers could last for decades and sometime are completely unnoticed. On the contrary, the men undertook a more ruthless approach in dealing and eventually killing their victims. Due to such trait, their patterns were easily revealed and their operations were easily noticeable. However, despite the emergence patterns, it was still relatively hard to trace the male killer responsible for the killings.
According to the modus operandi of most serial killers, their behaviors exhibit a sense of psychopathic traits that can be traced to their early lives. Both the male and female serial killers have troubled childhoods and pass through traumatic experiences that reflect later in life as psychopathic traits that alter their personalities (Wilson & Hilton, 1998). A good support of this argument is through the consideration of Aileen Wuornos and John Wayne Gacy who were both normal children while growing up but due to cases of family and school problems, their personalities changed and they developed psychopathic traits (Vronsky, 2007).
A common definition that has become accepted in the society is that a serial killer is a person that undertakes three sequential killing with time elapsing between the sequential events (Vronsky, 2007). Female serial killers are unlikely to have criminal records, which gives them an advantage over the law enforcement. However, the case of the male serial killers is different as most of them have criminal records and after patterns appear on their criminal activities, the police are able to make connection and trace their whereabouts.
In conclusion,both male and female serial killers are societal menace and have differences and similarities in the way they conduct their murders. Unlike the past studies, the investigations on serial killers in the modern society cover both the male and female antics in order to narrow the possible suspects. The modus operandi on the serial killers offers insight relative to the arrested serial killers. However, the investigation units posit that each serial killer has peculiar traits that set them aside from others. Therefore, only through more investigation can the public be secured from such offenders.
- Category: Children Food Intake Method
- Published on Tuesday, 17 February 2015 13:38
- Written by Super User
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One of the leading parts of a govt in any nation is making sure that its residents have enough money for practical wants and needs. Different governments use different methods to ensure that their citizens get the most necessary needs to enable them survive and be healthy, however. These techniques contrast depending with the category problems than a country is looking at. Examples of these concerns are like poverty point throughout country and population among others. In the nation, during early 70s, authorities opted to make a software program that will make sure that ample supplementation of vitamins and minerals to women, children and infants who will be 5 years previous and beneath. This system and yet is ideal for the inhabitants who will be eligible to an extremely low-profits in the nation as an easy way of assuring they are totally free of vitamin and mineral danger. The computer program has been doing place up to speed and features been elevating progressively to provide better providers to a individuals.
- Category: Children Food Intake Method
- Published on Friday, 17 April 2015 10:32
- Written by Super User
- Hits: 1795
One of the leading positions of an government in any united states is so that its people is able to afford typical is going to need. However, different governments use different methods to ensure that their citizens get the most necessary needs to enable them survive and be healthy. These methods fluctuate dependant due to the sort worries that any land is encountering. A few issues are which include poverty standard into the population and country as well as others. In america, during the early 70s, the federal government planned to get a program which will make sure good supplementation of nutrients to children, infants and women which are five-years existing and following next. This product nevertheless is good for the residents who have been qualified for an enormously lessened-earnings in america as a means of insuring that they are free of nutrient financial risk. The course has been doing area up to date and contains been developing slowly and gradually in an attempt to provide better service providers on to the inhabitants.